Basic Functions of Accounting Systems

An accounting System – is a set of records and the procedures and equipment used to perform the accounting functions. Manual systems consist of journals and ledgers on paper. Computerized accounting systems consist of accounting software, computer files, computers, and related peripheral equipment such as printers.

Basic Functions

Interpret and record business transactions.

The records that are kept for the individual asset, liability, equity, revenue, expense, and dividend components are known as accounts Every time an organisation conducts a business transaction, the status of the account changes. Bookkeeping process keeps track of these changes in various ledgers and journals. The financial statements are then prepared using this information.

Classify similar transactions into useful reports.

Statement of financial position has 3 sections

Assets – the things of value that the company owns.

Liabilities – obligations to pay or provide goods or services at some later date.

Equity – the amount of net assets (assets – liabilities) owing to the owners of the business.The income statement – communicates the inflow of revenue, and the outflow of expenses over a given period of time.

The Cash Flow Statement – records inflows and outflows of cash during a period of time, and is divided into cash flow from operations, financing, and investing activities. 

Summarize and communicate information to decision makers. 

An accounting system is capable of generating summarized and comprehensive statistical reports that provide management or interested parties with a clear set of data to aid in the decision-making process.

An accounting system can also manage

Expenses – An automatic accounting system allows quick entry, categorisation and automatic balance of expenses.

Invoices – Some accounting systems allow for instant invoice creation with the ability to customize and automatically keep track of paid invoices and income.

Funding – All the business liabilities, whether accounts payable, bank loans taken to support the business, or mortgages, etc. An accounting system keeps track of these liabilities as payable values and automatically updates the balances as soon a payment is made and accounts are settled.

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